Gijsbert Stoet

Academic role

I am working as a Reader in Psychology at the University of Glasgow.

Research background and interests

My research interests are broad, and are strongly influenced by my education in Cognitive Psychology at the Max-Planck-Institute for Psychological Research and subsequent neurobiological research at the Medical School of Washington University in St.Louis. My current research is best described as a mix of Cognitive (attention, perception, action, memory, etc), Differential (studying differences between individuals), and Educational Psychology (the psychology of learning processes). I am particularly interested in gender differences in thought and behaviour, the psychology of learning, as well as in meta-cognitive processes, such attention and executive control.

One of my aims is to understand and reduce performance gaps between boys and girls in school. For example, in international surveys, British boys fall behind in reading skills, and British girls in mathematics (this is the case in most countries). More research is necessary to be able to reduce these fairly persistent gaps, which limit children's career opportunities. This research is a good example of combining Differential and Cognitive Psychology.

In the past, I have gained much experience with a wide variety of extremely different laboratory measurement techniques (see my publications below). Currently, I use behavioral measures from my own lab as well as "secondary data", in particular those from the Programme for International Student Assessment (the largest international test of school children with millions of data points). The main academic aim of this research is to understand variation in human attitudes and cognition. The practical aim is to improve learning and education.

Most of my past and present research has been funded with grants from the ESRC, NIH, German Science Foundation (DFG), Max-Planck-Society, James S. McDonnell Foundation, British Academy, and Nuffield Foundation, and I would like to thank the funding organisations and collaborators for their support. In the publication section, you can find a variety of articles that resulted from these grants.

Short CV

University education
Otto Hahn Medal
1996-1998PhD. Psychology (Summa Cum Laude), Max-Planck-Institute for Psychological Research and Ludwig Maximilians University (Munich, Germany)
Thesis: The role of feature integration in action planning
Adviser: Bernhard Hommel
Note: For this research, I received the German Otto Hahn Medal (pictured).
1989-1993M.A. Psychology, University of Groningen (The Netherlands)
Thesis: Natural language processing in neural networks
Advisers: Gerhard Dalenoort and Hans Strohner

Academic institutions where I have been employed
2013-University of Glasgow (UK), Reader in Psychology
2007-2013University of Leeds (UK)
2006-2007University of the West of England (UK)
1998-2006Washington University in St.Louis (USA)
1996-1998Max-Planck-Institute for Psychological Research (Munich, Germany)
1993-1995University of Bielefeld (Germany)

Publications cited more than 100 times

Single neurons in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of monkeys encode cognitive set
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2004). Neuron, 42, 1003-1012.
[download pdf]
NOTE: The researcher David J. Freedman wrote an introductory article about our article in the same issue of Neuron [download pdf]

Action planning and the temporal binding of response codes
Stoet, G. & Hommel, B. (1999). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25, 1625-1640.
[download pdf]


cover jns

Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.
Stoet, G., Bailey, D.H., Moore, A.M., & Geary, D.C. (2016). PLOS ONE, 11(4): e0153857.
[Read this open access article online]

Challenges for determining the causal effects between social behavior and testosteron.
Stoet, G. & Geary, D.C. (2016). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), Volume 113, E499.

Sex differences in the Simon task help to interpret sex differences in selective attention
Stoet, G. (2016). Psychological Research (online first, open access).

Sex differences in academic achievement are not related to political, economic, or social equality
Stoet, G. & Geary, D. C. (2015). Intelligence, 48, 137-151.
[publisher's link]

British male students continue to fall behind in secondary school achievement.
Stoet, G. (2015). New Male Studies, 4, 23-49.[download PDF]

Are women better than men at multitasking?
Stoet, G., O'Connor, D.B., Conner, M., and Laws, K. R.
BMC Psychology, 1:18, (2013). [Read this open access article for free]

Sex differences in mathematics and reading achievement are inversely related: Within- and across-nation assessment of 10 years of PISA data.
Stoet, G. & Geary, D. C. (2013). PLoS ONE 8(3): e57988.
[Read this open access article online for free] or [watch a 11-minute video explaining the basics of this study].

Relative changes from prior reward contingencies can constrain brain correlates of outcome monitoring.
Mushtaq, F., Stoet. G, Bland, A.R., & Schaefer, A (2013). PLoS ONE 8(6): e66350.
[Read this open access article online for free]

Development of task-switching skills.
Stoet, G. & López, B. (2013). Chapter 4 (pp.85-101) in B. R. Kar. (Ed.). Cognition and Brain development: Converging Evidence From Various Methodologies. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
[download PDF]

Neural correlates of cognitive flexibility in monkeys.
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2012). European Neuropsychopharmacology, 22, S137.

Why are there fewer women working in science and technology?
Stoet, G. & Geary, D. C. (2012). Skeptic Magazine, 24 (1), 28-30.

The role of executive control in tool use
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2012). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 35, 240-241.

Can stereotype threat explain the gender gap in mathematics performance and achievement?
Stoet, G. & Geary, D. C. (2012). Review of General Psychology, 16, 93-102.
[download pdf] or [watch video about this paper].
NOTE: I spoke about this study on BBC Radio 4, The Today Programme (the national morning news programme) on 19/Jan/2012: [Listen here]. This article was also discussed in various magazines and newspapers, for example in [an article in Scientific American in June 2013], in [an article in The Guardian] and in [an article in The Telegraph]. And Dutch NRC Handelsblad interviewed me and professor Claude Steele about this paper: Appeared in science section on 9/Feb/2013.

Sex differences in search and gathering skills
Stoet, G. (2011). Evolution and Human Behavior, 32, 416-422.
[download pdf]

Task switching abilities in children with autism spectrum disorder
Stoet, G. & López, B. (2011). European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 244-260.
[download pdf]

PsyToolkit - A software package for programming psychological experiments using Linux
Stoet, G. (2010). Behavior Research Methods, 42(4), 1096-1104.
[download pdf]

Sex differences in the processing of flankers
Stoet, G. (2010). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63 (4), 633-638.
[download pdf]

Neural correlates of executive control functions in the monkey
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2009). Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13, 228-234.
[download pdf]

Modification of response time variability in a decision-making task
Stoet, G., Ruge, H., & Snyder, L.H. (2008). Neuroreport, 19, 1321-1324.
[download pdf]

Dyslexia and attentional shifting
Stoet, G., Markey, H., & López, B. (2007). Neuroscience Letters, 427, 61-65.
[download pdf]

Task-switching in human and non-human primates: Understanding rule encoding and control from behavior to single neurons
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2007).
In S.A. Bunge and J.D. Wallis (Eds.), pp. 227-254. The Neuroscience of Rule-Guided Behavior. Oxford University Press.

Extensive practice does not eliminate human switch costs
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2007). Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(3), 192-197.
[download pdf]

Correlates of stimulus-response congruence in posterior parietal cortex (PPC)
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2007). Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 194-203. [see journal cover about this article at the top of publications]
[download pdf]

Effects of the NMDA antagonist ketamine on task-switching performance: evidence for specific impairments of executive control
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2006). Neuropsychopharmacology, 31, 1675-1681.
[download pdf]

Attentional set mixing: effects on target selection and selective response activation
Ruge, H., Stoet, G., & Naumann E. (2006). Psychophysiology, 43, 413-421.
[download pdf]

Single neurons in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of monkeys encode cognitive set
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2004). Neuron, 42, 1003-1012.
[download pdf]
NOTE: The researcher David J. Freedman wrote an introductory article about our article in the same issue of Neuron [download pdf]

Executive control and task-switching in monkeys
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2003). Neuropsychologia, 41, 1357-1364.
[download pdf]

Task preparation in macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta)
Stoet, G. & Snyder, L.H. (2003). Animal Cognition, 6, 121-130
[download pdf]

Interaction between feature binding in perception and action
Stoet, G. & Hommel, B. (2002). In W.Prinz & B.Hommel (Eds.). Common mechanisms in perception and action: Attention and Performance, Vol. XIX (pp. 538-552). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[download pdf]

Action planning and the temporal binding of response codes
Stoet, G. & Hommel, B. (1999). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25, 1625-1640.
[download pdf]

The role of feature integration in action
Stoet, G. (1998). Dissertation. Munich, Germany.

Cognitive Compositionality: An Activation and Evaluation Hypothesis
Strohner, H. & Stoet, G. (1999). In M.K. Hiraga, C. Sinha & S.Wilcox (Eds.), Cultural, Psychological and Typological Issues in Cognitive Linguistics (pp. 195-209). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co.

Kognitive Modellierung semantischer Kompositionalität
Strohner, H. & Stoet, G. (1994). Sprache und Datenverarbeitung, 18, 45-64.

Interferenzprozesse bei Adjektiv-Nomen-Kompositionen
Strohner, H. & Stoet, G. (1996). Sind geschälte Äpfel eher weiß als rund? In C.Habel, S.Kanngießer & G.Rickheit (Eds.), Perspektiven der Kognitiven Linguistik:Modelle und Methoden (pp. 233-255). Opladen:Westdeutscher Verlag.



PsyToolkit is an open-access and open-source software package for creating and running psychological experiments using. It can be used online or using the Linux operating system. It has been developed since 2005 and has users around the world. An online learning system helps students and professionals to learn this system. Click here to learn more about the software.. You can find PsyToolkit on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter.

Publications about PsyToolkit:

PsyToolkit - A software package for programming psychological experiments using Linux
Stoet, G. (2010). Behavior Research Methods, 42(4), 1096-1104.
[download pdf]

Stoet, G. (2011). Newsletter of the Higher Education Academy, 60, 14.
[download pdf of whole issue, contribution is on page 14]

Name pronounciation

Some people would like to know how to correctly pronounce my Dutch name (I am originally from The Netherlands). My first name has an English counterpart. In fact, English and Dutch have similar origins, and many English names have a Dutch version. The English equivalent of the Dutch "Gijsbert" is "Gilbert". If you find my first name too difficult to pronounce, you can call me Gilbert, or you can give the guide below a try and pronounce it like a Dutch speaker!

name pronounciation
						guide If you want to pronounce "Gijsbert" properly, pronounce the "G" as in the Scottish word "loch", the "ij" as "either", the "s" as in "his", and "bert" as in the name "Albert". Note: the Dutch "ij" is the Dutch 25th letter, it is a "y" with dots (ij), you can read more about this here.

My last name, Stoet, has the Dutch vowel combination "oe", which is pronounced as one vowel, exactly as the English "oo". My name sounds like the the English word "stood".

Thus, you could write the pronounciation of my complete name as Cheis-bert Stood. That is not entirely correct linguistically, though (for example, the last t in my surname is closer to the last t in the word "Stout"). But it gets close. If you want to hear how it is really pronounced, please listen to this sound file of how to pronounce both my first and last name.

Relevant Educational and Research Links:

Page last updated: 22/March/2016